ata from Cimarron will be combined with the in-situ electrical and microphysical measurements. 3.4.2 OBJECTIVE E2: Interaction of MCS kinematic, microphysical, and electrification processes 3.4.3 OBJECTIVE E3: Microphysical structure of electrified stratiform clouds 3.4.4 OBJECTIVE E4: X-ray and electric field change measurements 3.4.5 OBJECTIVE E5: Electrical structure of an MCSs southernmost convective cell
  3.4.6 OBJECTIVE E6: Three-dimensional mapping of MCS lightning
  3.5 References

4. Forecasting and Daily Operations

All forecasting and nowcasting operations for MEaPRS will be conducted from the NSSL/SPC Science Support Area (SSA). The MEaPRS forecasting and nowcasting support effort will operate 7 days a week for the full operational period of the experiment. It will be necessary for all MEaPRS personnel who will be working in the SSA in a nowcasting capacity to receive training prior to the start of the experiment. The SSA will be reserved for approximately 1 week prior to the experiment for training purposes. Proper training will take approximately two days.

In this document, a distinction is made between MEaPRS forecasting and nowcasting responsibilities. Forecasting support is defined as daily and long-term (up to 30 hours) prediction, while nowcasting support is defined as short-term (less than 3 hours) prediction of convective development and real-time support of field operations. It is anticipated that forecasting for MEaPRS will involve the participation of the NSSL/Mesoscale Application Group members and volunteer SPC forecasters, possibly as part of a probabilistic MCS forecasting experiment. Nowcasters will be drawn from participating MEaPRS scientists and students.

4.1 Nominal Daily Schedule

The following chronology provides a working guide for daily forecasting/nowcasting operations. Much of the schedule is dictated by operational constraints of the P-3 aircraft, which requires advance notice of takeoff (TO) time well in advance of specified missions (specific details of the P-3 operational constraints are addressed later in this document). The typical daily schedule, which is depicted schematically by Fig. 3, is listed below. This schedule will be adjusted for early P-3 departures.
 

Following the departure of the P-3 from OKC, communication via VHF radio and flight phone is established between the MEaPRS Operations Director and the P-3 chief scientist. The Remote Aircraft Tracker System (RATS) will provide P-3 location on the NSSL (Radar Algorithms and Display System) RADS display of KTLX data running in real-time in the SSA.
FIGURE 3

Figure 3: Schematic depiction of the nominal daily forecasting/nowcasting schedule.

4.2 Forecaster Responsibilities
 

4.3 Nowcaster Responsibilities
  4.4 Communications

As with any field experiment, good communications are important towards assuring the success of the project. As such, several redundant communications links will be established between the operations center and the chief scientists of the mobile facilities. The primary means of communication between the operations center and the P-3 aircraft will be VHF radio (122.925 MHz), flight phone, and possibly also satellite communications; the primary means of communication between the operations center and the mobile laboratories will be cell phone. It will also be possible for the mobile laboratories to directly coordinate operations with the P-3 using VHF radio.

Past experience has shown that communication systems occasionally fail in the severe weather and highly electrified environments in which MEaPRS will be taking place. In those cases, the mobile laboratory and P-3 Chief Scientists will exercise their best judgments based on their most recent communications with the Operations Director.

4.5 Decision Responsibilities

The daily decision responsibilities for field operations are depicted schematically by Fig. 4. Due to space restrictions in the SSA, it will not be possible for all MEaPRS PIs and participants to attend the daily weather briefing. Therefore, MEaPRS PIs will be responsible for providing input to the Operations Coordination Team (consisting of the Operations Director, nowcaster, Cimarron radar coordinator, mobile laboratory coordinator, P-3 chief scientist, and AOC representative) prior to each days briefing (see Fig. 4). At 12:00 CDT, the forecaster will then brief then Operations Coordination Team on the daily and longer range outlooks. The discussion will also include issues such as facility status reports, budget considerations, and instrument availability. Based on the 6-12 hour forecast and facility reports, the Operations Coordination Team will collectively decide whether to operate (GO/NO GO), and given a GO decision will develop an effective mission strategy. Based on the 30-hour outlook, a decision about operating on the following day would be rendered. Given a GO decision, the P-3 Chief Scientist will alert the NOAA/AOC representative of the anticipated takeoff time and initial target point for the day's mission. The Operations Director will have the authority to make the final decision on daily operations.

FIGURE 4

Figure 4: Flow chart depicting proposed MEaPRS organization and decision responsibilities.
 


5. Mobile Laboratory Operations

5.1. Mobile Laboratories

During MEaPRS, three mobile laboratories from the JMRF and two balloon support rental trucks (used to transport helium and supplies for the mobile laboratories) will participate in mobile ballooning operations. These three mobile laboratories and two balloon trucks will be known as NSSL1, NSSL2, NSSL3, Balloon1, and Balloon2, respectively. Though some evolution in the mobile laboratory design has occurred over the past decade, the basic structure of the mobile laboratory and its data systems, as well as a short discussion of mobile ballooning operations, is presented by Rust (1989). For most field experiments, NSSL1 will travel independently with the support of Balloon1 while NSSL2 and NSSL3 will travel together and share the support of Balloon2.

In most cases, the mobile laboratories will be deployed to locations in advance of the convective line and will serially launch EFMs (and other instrumentation when appropriate) as the system passes overhead. Specific system-relative launch locations, along with coordinated P-3 flight legs for the various field experiments, are presented in detail in section 8. Since a large number of instruments may be in the air at any given time, it is critical that the mobile laboratory chief scientists coordinate frequency allocations prior to each mission. The P-3 pilots request the following information (to be provided by the P-3 Chief Scientist in coordination with the mobile laboratories): 1) the launch location (lat/lon) and time of each balloon launch, and 2) the approximate shortest distance from the airborne balloon to the P-3 flight track.

In addition to mobile ballooning operations, when possible, mobile laboratory crews will make efforts to collect and measure hail sizes when in the vicinity of hail shafts in support of the project's polarimetric objectives.

5.2 Mobile Ballooning Instrumentation

As stated earlier, the primary data collection responsibility of mobile laboratory crews will be to launch balloon-borne instruments. All total, five different instruments will be flown during MEaPRS. Prior to each mission, the PIs associated with each instrument will coordinate launch strategies to assure that sufficient data sets in support of each scientists objectives are collected during the project. The balloon- borne instruments and associated PIs are:
 

Given the complexity of launching balloons with several instruments in the severe weather conditions expected in MEaPRS, it will typically be necessary for a 7 person crew to be assigned to each mobile laboratory. There should be ample opportunity prior to the start of MEaPRS to train scientists to fill in at one or more of the key ballooning positions.

5.3 Balloon Launch Strategies

On any given mission, the mobile laboratories will typically be positioned to follow one of two different launch strategies. For investigations of two-dimensional MCS charge structure, the mobile laboratories will line up perpendicular to the convective line. NSSL2 will launch a pressure-temperature-humidity (PTH) sounding ahead of the convective line. Sounding data should be taken to the tropopause or until the team must prepare for the first MCS flight. NSSL1 and NSSL2 will then launch balloon-borne EFMs into the convective updraft and downdraft, respectively (launches separated by 5-10 minutes) followed by alternating NSSL1 and NSSL2 EFM launches approximately every 1 hour. For investigations of three-dimensional MCS charge structure, the mobile laboratories will initially line up perpendicular to the convective line. NSSL2 will launch a PTH sounding ahead of the convective line. NSSL2 and NSSL1 will then launch balloon-borne EFMs into the convective updraft and downdraft, respectively (launches separated by 5-10 minutes). After launch, NSSL1 will immediately move to a line-parallel position to that of NSSL2. NSSL1 and NSSL2 will then launch EFMs simultaneously approximately every hour. Both of these launch strategies are schematically depicted, along with corresponding P-3 flight strategies, in section 8. On occasion, single EFM flights may be made in support of other scientific objectives. The launch of other balloon-borne electrical instrumentation (Q-D, x-ray, field change, and cloud particle replicator) from NSSL1, NSSL2 and NSSL3 will be coordinated by mobile laboratory chief scientists.


6. Ground-based Radar Operations

In addition to polarimetric measurements, ground-based radar operations during MEaPRS will include the collection of dual-Doppler radar data over central Oklahoma. In this section, National Weather Service (NWS) and Department of Defense (DOD) single-Doppler radar data collection within the MEaPRS experimental domain and the coordination of the central Oklahoma WSR-88D NWS radars (KTLX and KCRI) with CIM data collection are discussed.

6.1 Polarimetric Radar Coverage

In general, polarimetric radar data of sufficient quality to address the polarimetric objectives of MEaPRS will extend to a range of approximately 100 km from Cimarron. In addition to the standard radar products of reflectivity, radial winds, and spectral width, the polarimetric variables of differential reflectivity (Zdr), differential phase shift (fdp), and correlation coefficient (rhv(0)) are computed in real time and archived on tape. Post-processing of the differential phase propagation also yields specific differential phase (Kdp), which is useful at interpreting rainfall rates and the orientation of aligned hydrometeors. Characteristics of the Cimarron radar are listed in Table 1.

Table 1: Characteristics of Cimarron radar
 
Frequency 2735 Mhz
Peak Power 500 kW
Beam width 0.9 deg
Maximum sidelobe level -22 dB
Antenna gain 46 dB
Pulse width 1 microsec
Receiver noise level -110 dBM
Matched filter bandwidth (6 dB) 0.85 Mhz
System losses 11.7 dB
Cross-polar isolation 20 dB
 
6.2 Dual-Doppler Radar Coverage

The National Weather Service operates two WSR-88D radars in central Oklahoma. KTLX is an operational radar operated by the Norman, Oklahoma WSFO while KCRI is a training radar operated by the WSR-88D Operational Support Facility (OSF). The locations and heights of Cimarron, KTLX, and KCRI, respectively, are listed in Table 2.

Table 2: Locations/heights of central Oklahoma Doppler radars
 
ID Site Latitude Longitude Height (m)
CIM Yukon, OK 35.475 -97.813 408
KTLX Twin Lakes, OK 35.333 -97.278 388
KCRI Norman, OK 35.237 -97.463 370
KTLX: The Cimarron-KTLX radar pair provides dual-Doppler coverage with a baseline of 51.1 km. The two precipitation mode Volume Coverage Patterns (VCP) typically scanned by the WSR-88D radars are listed in Table 3. During field operations, efforts will be made to request that the WSFO run VCP 11 (which has better data resolution in the upper levels) to assure good quality vertical velocities calculations in dual-Doppler analyses. A recorder will be installed at NSSL to record KTLX Level II data locally.

KCRI: The Cimarron-KCRI radar pair provides dual-Doppler coverage with a baseline of 41.4 km. Due to the shorter baseline and overlap of the dual-Doppler lobes with those provided by the Cimarron-KTLX, Cimarron-KCRI will primarily serve as a backup to KTLX. Unlike KTLX, KCRI is a training radar and therefore does not run continuously. It will therefore be the responsibility of the MEaPRS PIs to inform the Operations Director when KCRI data are required. The Operations Director will then contact an Electronics Technician at the WSR-88D hotline to start data collection. As with KTLX, VCP 11 will be requested.

Table 3: NWS WSR-88D Precipitation Mode VCPs
 
VCP Time (min) t (microsec) # of elevations Max elevation (deg) RPM
11 5 1.57 14 19.5 ~3
21 6 1.57 9 19.5 ~2
6.3 NWS and DOD WSR-88D Radar Sites

Several NWS and DOD radar sites throughout the MEaPRS experiment domain will provide single- Doppler radar coverage that will be vital to many of the scientific objectives of MEaPRS. In particular, WSR-88D sites at Altus Air Force Base (KFDR) and Vance Air Force Base (KVNX) will provide coverage of western Oklahoma. Past field projects have shown that Level II data are not always archived at these sites. Therefore, during MEaPRS, Maj. Edward Ciardi of the OSF has agreed to act as a liaison between the Operations Director and DOD radar sites to assure that data are archived during field operations. Level II data from the other WSR-88D sites in the experiment domain will typically be available from the National Climatic Data Center. The locations of these WSR-88D radar sites are listed in Table 10 and located in Figure 1.

6.4 Scanning Strategies

6.4.1 Twin Lakes WSR-88D (KTLX):

The Twin Lakes WSR-88D radar will provide three kinds of information: 1) surveillance radar coverage throughout much of Oklahoma, 2) velocity data (out to a range of about 110 km) that will be combined with velocity data from the Cimarron radar to yield four-dimensional airflow fields in one or both fixed regions of analysis northeast of and southwest of the baseline between Cimarron and KTLX, and 3) velocity data (out to a range of about 110 km) that will be combined with velocity data from the P-3 tail radar to yield four-dimensional airflow fields where KTLX's coverage overlaps that of the P-3 tail radar.

KTLX invariably performs full (360-deg azimuth) volume scans at a series of elevations. The exact volume scan used must satisfy the operational needs of the NWS. MEaPRS research goals would be best met with volume scan VCP 11, in which 14 unique elevations are scanned in a period of 5 minutes. Much less desirable is volume scan VCP 21, in which 9 unique elevations are scanned in a period of 6 minutes. The project should request that the NWS use VCP 11 (if it meets operational requirements) during MEaPRS operational periods, especially when the weather of interest is within the Cimarron- KTLX dual-Doppler analysis region or when P-3 tail radar data are within 110 km of KTLX.

Archive of Level II data will be performed.

6.4.2 Norman WSR-88D (KCRI):

The Norman WSR-88D radar will operate to some extent as a backup to KTLX. Because of their short baseline, KTLX and KCRI are not a practical dual-Doppler pair. For the same reason, KCRI adds only a little geometric diversity to analyses involving the surface-based radars and the P-3 tail radar. Its contribution to multiple-radar analyses, however, is not negligible. Its inclusion should reduce errors; its inclusion may help with dealiasing other radars; its inclusion may help fill in the analysis from the P-3 tail radar when the P-3's flight path is not straight; and, most important, its inclusion may help remedy the coarse volume scanning of WSR-88D radars, especially if KTLX is performing volume scan VCP 21 instead of VCP 11.

Archive of Level II data will be performed.

6.4.3 Cimarron:

The Cimarron radar will provide three kinds of information: 1) polarimetric data that provide information on the size, shape, and composition of the hydrometeors, 2) velocity data (out to a range of about 110 km) that will be combined with velocity data from KTLX and KCRI to yield four-dimensional airflow fields in one or both fixed regions of analysis northeast of and southwest of the baseline between Cimarron and KTLX, and 3) velocity data (out to a range of about 110 km) that will be combined with velocity data from the P-3 tail radar to yield four-dimensional airflow fields where Cimarron's coverage overlaps that of the P-3 tail radar. Cimarron will be operated remotely from NSSL in two modes.

MODE 1: When the weather of interest is not within one of the fixed analysis regions northeast of and southwest of the baseline between Cimarron and KTLX, and when Cimarron will collect polarimetric and conventional data in simple sector scans at elevations of 0.2, 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, 4.2, and 5.2 deg. 128 samples per ray will be collected. The azimuthal rotation rate will be 6 deg/s. When the P-3 is not flying, the sectors should encompass the weather system. When the P-3 is flying, the sectors should concentrate on the region of the system in the vicinity of its flight path and within the coverage of the tail radar. Data will be most useful within a range of 110 km. Occasionally, polarimetric volume scans, as described below, will be performed to investigate regions of negative Kdp.

MODE2: When the weather of interest is within one of the fixed analysis regions northeast of and southwest of the baseline between Cimarron and KTLX, volume scans will be performed to collect data to enable four-dimensional velocity fields to be deduced. Polarimetric data will also be collected during these scans. The azimuthal rotation rate and the elevations scanned will be determined by an optimization algorithm that takes into consideration the echo extent and depth. (The algorithm controls the azimuthal and elevational resolution at the maximum useful slant range in echo.) Scans typically will consist of between 20 and 30 elevations. 64 samples per ray will be collected. The volume scan period will be 5 minutes to match that of volume scan VCP 11 of the WSR-88D radars. There is no advantage to coordinating scan start times with the WSR-88D radars. When the P-3 is flying, the scanned sector will be broadened, in necessary, to include the vicinity of its flight path and the coverage of the tail radar.

The velocity volume scans (VS) will be interleaved with polarimetric volume scans (PS) according to the following scheme:
 

VS (5 min)
VS (5 min)
PS (2-5 min)
VS (5 min)
VS (5 min)
PS (2-5 min)
etc.

The PSs will consist of a sequence of sweeps in elevation at various azimuths. The elevation range will be from 0.2 to 20 deg. The azimuthal step will be 1 to 2 deg. The elevational rotation rate will be 2 deg/s. 128 samples per ray will be collected. The polarimetric volume scans will consist of from 12 to 30 sweeps. Which azimuthal sectors to scan in a PS will be determined during the preceding VSs. Selection will be based on precipitation pattern (e.g., strong stratiform rain areas), proximity of aircraft, and interesting polarimetric data signatures (e.g., negative Kdp in snow crystals indicating possible vertical alignment of crystals in electric field, high Kdp, Zdr in rain immediately below intense bright band). Since regions of negative Kdp may be transitory, a VS may sometimes be aborted so that the negative Kdp region can be examined with a PS.

If possible, Cimarron will be operated with the largest pulse repetition frequency (PRF), 1302/s, because relatively fast antenna rotation rates are required to cover the large solid angles of mesoscale weather systems. However, severe contamination by second-trip echoes may necessitate the use of lower PRFs. The rather low maximum antenna rotation rate of Cimarron compatible with the collection of polarimetric measurements rules out performing full (360-deg azimuth) volume scans. It is desirable that one of the two fixed analysis regions be selected for observation for long durations. If both analysis regions are designated as the weather of interest, then each will be scanned separately during the two consecutive PS in the interleaved scan scheme.


7. Aircraft Operations

One NOAA P-3 aircraft has been committed to MEaPRS for 50 research flight hours. The two primary responsibilities of the P-3 will be to gather pseudo-dual-Doppler and in-situ cloud microphysical data in support of MEaPRS electrification and polarimetric radar objectives.

7.1 Operational Constraints

AOC has developed several rules regarding P-3 flight missions to ensure safe operations yet allow maximum flexibility to adjust to changing weather and multiple scientific objectives. These constraints are summarized in Table 4.

Table 4: NOAA P-3 Operational Constraints
 
Constraints Limits
Anticipated next-day takeoff time Must be specified at least 24 hours in advance
Crew duty day 16 hours
Minimum crew rest between duty days 15 hours
Maximum consecutive mission days 6
Minimum pre-flight preparation time 3 hours
The anticipated next-day takeoff time specifies the start of the crew duty day. The mission must be completed within 16 hours of this time including any delays in takeoff. A "hard-down" day must be given after the sixth consecutive mission day, or following 3 consecutive late night missions. A mission day is defined as an alert day whether or not the aircraft actually flies a mission. A down day is declared at the weather briefing for the next day. The P-3 scientific personnel will also adhere to the crew duty day and crew rest operational constraints.

7.2 Scientific Flight Crew Positions

The operation of the specialized scientific equipment on the P-3 (lower fuselage and tail radar, cloud physics system) is normally performed by the scientific crew. Personnel from AOC monitor the performance and recording of the main data system (in-situ flight level data). The required scientific positions on the P-3 are as detailed in Table 5.

Table 5: NOAA P-3 Scientific Flight Crew Positions
 
Position Number of People Duties
Chief Scientist 1 Plan flight tracks in coordination with Flight Director
Supervise data collection
Coordinate with Operations Center & Mobile Laboratories
Doppler Radar 1 Monitor system performance
Maintain tape and event logs
Change tapes
Help interpret radar displays
Cloud Physics 2 Monitor system performance (1 cloud physics/ 1Q-probe)
Maintain tape and event logs
Change tapes
Help interpret PMS displays
Observers 2 (optional) Help interpret meteorology and assist Chief Scientist
Maintain scientific logs
7.3 Instrumentation

There are three basic data systems on the P-3. These include the radar data system, the cloud physics data system, and the main data system.

7.3.1 Radar Data System:

The P-3 aircraft is fitted with two research radars onboard. They are a 5 cm lower fuselage radar (LF) that measures returned power only and a 3 cm tail mounted Doppler radar (TA). The 5 cm LF is mounted below the lower surface of the aircraft and scans in a PPI mode. The radar is capable of performing complete 360 sweeps or sector scans of less than 360 and operates nominally at 2 rpm. The radar, operating at 200 PRF, has an unambiguous range of ~750 km, and can archive a maximum of 512 gates (or bins) of information. The maximum range that can be archived is simply the product of the 512 gates times the pulse length. The pulse length is variable between 125 m and 750 m in 125 m steps. Both the pulse length as well as the sector size are operator selectable. Some of the LF characteristics are given in the Table 6.

Table 6: Characteristics of the NOAA P-3 Lower Fuselage Radar
 
Parameter Value
Scanning method PPI
Wavelength 5.59 cm (C-band)
Beamwidth 

 Horizontal 

 Vertical 

 

1.1 deg 

 4.1 deg

Gain 37.5 dB
Sidelobe (dB down from main lobe) -23 dB
Scan rate 2 RPM
Tilt elevation range (10 deg
Range resolution 750 m (maximum; half pulse length)
Pulse Repetition Rate (PRF) 200 /s
Unambiguous range 750 km
Maximum range (archived) 384 km
The TA is mounted on the tail of the aircraft and scans in RHI mode which, due to forward aircraft motion, is better characterized as a helical pattern. The "French antenna" is being used for MEaPRS. The French antenna is a dual plate antenna with one plate directing the radar beams ~20 aft of the normal vector to the aircraft heading and the other directing the beams ~20 forward of the normal vector. As each sweep is completed, the power is alternately directed to the other antenna plate, and hence, alternating forward and aft sweeps are accomplished. The French antenna can rotate at a maximum of 10 rpm and can provide either 360 continuous sweeps or 180 sector sweeps to either side of the aircraft. Some of the characteristics of the TA are given in the Table 7.
Table 7: Characteristics of the NOAA P-3 Airborne Doppler Radar
 
Parameter Value
Scanning method RHI
Wavelength 3.22 cm (X-band)
Beamwidth 

 CRPE (French) flat-plate antenna 

 Horizontal 

 Vertical 

2.07 deg/2.04( deg (aft/fore beams) 

 2.10 deg (aft and fore beams)

Polarization (along sweep axis) 

 French antenna 

 

Linear horizontal
Sidelobes (dB down from main lobe) 

 French antenna 

 Horizontal 

 Vertical 

Aft beam: -57.6 dB; Fore beam: -55.6 dB 

 Aft beam: -41.5 dB; Fore beam: -41.8 dB

Gain 

 French antenna 

 

Aft beams: 34.85 dB; Fore beams: 35.90 dB
Scan rate 0-10 RPM
Fore/Aft tilt 

 French antenna 

 

Aft beam: -19.48 deg; Fore beam: 19.25 deg
Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) 1600 /s (maximum)
Pulses averaged per radial sample 32
Unambiguous Nyquist interval (12.88 m/s (1600 /s PRF)
Unambiguous range 93.7 km
Range resolution (0.5 (s pulse duration) 75 m (half pulse length)
7.3.2 Cloud Physics Data System:

The P-3 aircraft is fitted with two optical array probes with size resolutions of 150 mm (2DG-P) and 30 mm (2DG-C), respectively. These probes are typically referred to as "grey probes" as, in addition to having a size resolution that is improved over earlier versions, they are also capable of discriminating four different shades of optical intensity. The characteristics of the 2DG-P and 2DG-C probes are given in Table 8.

Table 8: Characteristics of the NOAA P-3 Optical Array Probes
 
Parameter 2DG-P 2DG-C
Size range 9.6 mm 1.92 mm
Resolution 150 microns 30 microns
Ice/water discrimination No Depolarizer
Other cloud microphysics instrumentation to be flown on the P-3 during MEaPRS include: a 15-channel Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP), and a Johnson-Williams (JW) cloud liquid water probe. Four King Air cloud liquid water probes have also been made available to MEaPRS. Cloud particle charge measurements will be made by a Desert Research Institute/University of Manchester (DRI/UMIST) Q-probe, which has a sensitivity of approximately ±1 pC.

7.3.3 Main Data System:

Characteristics of the main data system sensors are given in Table 9. The sensors that are serviced by the main data system are sampled at a rate of 40 Hz, and then are averaged to yield 1 sample per second. Derived parameters (such as wind) are calculated in post-processing once calibrations and biases are determined and removed.

Table 9: Characteristics of the NOAA P-3 main data system sensors
 
Parameter Instrument Manufacturer Accuracy Resolution
Positioning Inertial Navigation Equipment (INE) Northrop/Delco 1.5 km (after post-processing) 8.3x10-8 
Temperature Platinum resistance Rosemount 0.5 C 0.03 C
Dewpoint Cooled Mirror General Eastern 0.5 C 0.03 C
Static pressure Transducer Garrett 1.0 mb 0.1 mb
Dynamic pressure Transducer Rosemount 0.5 mb 0.1 mb
Attack pressure Transducer Rosemount 1.0% 0.1 mb
Sideslip pressure Transducer Rosemount 1.0% 0.1 mb
Absolute altitude Radar Altimeter Stewart-Warner (APN-59) 0.01% 1 m
Cloud water Hot Wire Johnson-Williams 0.2% 0.1 g/m3
In-cloud temp. CO2 radiometer (14 micron) Barnes/AOC 1.0 C 0.1 C
Ground speed INE accelerometers Northrop/Delco 0.5 m/s 0.06 m/s
Track angle INE accelerometers Northrop/Delco 0.2 deg 0.005 deg
Heading angle INE accelerometers Northrop/Delco 0.1 deg 0.005 deg
Pitch angle INE accelerometers Northrop/Delco 0.06 deg 0.005 deg
Roll angle INE accelerometers Northrop/Delco 0.06 deg 0.005 deg

8. Field Experiments

8.1 Overview of Field Experiments

Specific field experiment designs are presented in this section. One of the advantages of using the P-3 aircraft to investigate weather phenomena is the ability to adjust flight patterns to fit the pattern of storms and precipitation. The variability of MCS morphology and evolution makes precise pre-planning of specific flight patterns difficult, and what is in the following section are only generic flight patterns showing what typically could be done to address each of the scientific objectives. In addition, flight safety requirements specify that the P-3 not penetrate any convective cell where the possibility exists of damage due to turbulence, strong updrafts and downdrafts, and/or damage from hail, graupel, or icing. No penetration of convective features (as evidenced on the nose radar display) will be attempted. Flight paths through extensive stratiform precipitation will be a priority for investigation.

As noted earlier, to facilitate the presentation of experiment designs to address all scientific objectives, the project domain has essentially been divided into three regions. These three regions are specified as being: I) outside of Cimarron range, II) within 100 km of Cimarron but outside of dual-Doppler coverage, and III) within dual-Doppler coverage. In region I, which is out of the ground-based radar coverage required to accomplish much of the project's electrical and polarimetric goals, efforts will be made to address the scientific goals that are best described as MCS dynamics. In region II, which is within 100 km of Cimarron but outside of dual-Doppler coverage, more emphasis will be placed on the project's microphysical, polarimetric, and electrical objectives. Finally, in region III, where quality ground-based dual-Doppler radar coverage exists, the P-3 will be given more flexibility in its flight patterns, but emphasis will still be placed on collecting high-quality comprehensive data sets that address the electrical and polarimetric needs of MEaPRS. As such, the experiments presented here are not necessarily presented in order of their importance to the overall project objectives, but rather the order that they will likely be addressed in a typical P-3 mission.

8.2 Summary of Regions

Option I: The flight patterns for Region I generally attempt to document either 1) the convective line structure, or 2) mesoscale circulations associated with line-end vortices. The P-3 will typically be acting alone in this region and is therefore free to change flight strategies and tail radar scanning modes to maximize the coverage or minimize errors.

Option II: When in Region II, the flight patterns generally attempt to document either 1) the kinematic structure in the vicinity of EFM launches, or 2) the microphysical structure in support of polarimetric objectives. For P-3 data collection in support of electrical objectives, the mobile laboratories will typically line up perpendicular to the convective line (2-D documentation of electrical structure) or spaced apart along the line (3-D documentation of electrical structure).

Option III: When in Region III, data collection will take place within one of the dual-Doppler lobes. The strict linear flight patterns needed in Region II will therefore be relaxed and the P-3 will be free to perform spiral ascents/descents to obtain microphysical profiles over the mobile laboratories. The mobile laboratory positioning in Region III will typically be similar to those discussed previously for Region II (i.e., 2-D and 3-D documentation of electrical structure).

It is assumed that any flight patterns within 100 km of Cimarron will be coordinated with the mobile laboratories. Should mobile laboratory coordination not be possible and the system is within 100 km of Cimarron, then alternative flight strategies will be employed to make microphysical and pseudo-dual- Doppler measurements.

8.3 Region I Field Experiments

FIGURE 5

Figure 5: Schematic of horizontal MCS cross-sections for experiment Option Ia.

Option Ia:

Goal: Document convective line structure and fluxes

Aircraft: The P-3 will perform a descent sounding (from ferry level) approximately 50 km ahead of the convective line. The P-3 will then conduct a series of 50-80 km long legs 10-20 km ahead of the line and an altitude of 3 kft. Tail Doppler radar data will be collected in FAST-sector mode during the flight legs. If possible, this pattern will be repeated for several hours.

Mobile Labs: A mobile laboratory crew will launch soundings (approximately 1 per hour) at a location 40 km in front of the convective line.

Cimarron: The Cimarron radar is not required for this experiment.

FIGURE 6

Figure 6: Schematic of horizontal MCS cross-sections for experiment Option Ib.

Option Ib:

Goal: Document mesoscale circulations

Aircraft: The P-3 will conduct a series of 30 minute flight legs at an altitude of 10 kft that encompass the center of any line-end vortices and/or circulation features. Tail Doppler radar data will be collected in FAST-continuous mode during the flight legs.

Mobile Labs: The mobile laboratories are not required for this experiment.

Cimarron: The Cimarron radar is not required for this experiment.

Notes: It is possible that this flight pattern might also be performed in Region II. In that case, balloon launches and Cimarron data collection may be added to this experiment.

FIGURE 7

Figure 7: Schematic of (a) horizontal and (b) vertical MCS cross-sections for experiment Option Ic. Dots in (b) depict system-relative location at which each flight leg intersects the cross-section.

Option Ic:

Goal: Document convective fluxes and microphysics rearward

Aircraft: The P-3 will conduct a series of six 10 minute flight legs at a location 10-20 km behind the convective line and altitudes corresponding to the temperature levels of +5, 0, -5, -10, -15, and -20 C, respectively. Tail Doppler radar data will be collected in FAST-continuous mode during the flight legs. If possible, this pattern will be repeated 1 hour later to document the evolution of microphysical fluxes with time.

Mobile Labs: The mobile laboratories are not required for this experiment.

Cimarron: The Cimarron radar is not required for this experiment.

Notes: Due to the nature of the P-3 data collection (i.e., microphysical and particle charge data at locations immediately behind the convective line), efforts should be made to coordinate at least 1 transition zone EFM flight with this flight pattern.

8.4 Region II Field Experiments

FIGURE 8

Figure 8: Schematic of (a) horizontal and (b) vertical MCS cross-sections for experiment Option IIa. Dots in (b) depict system-relative location at which each flight leg intersects the cross-section.

Option IIa:

Goal: Document mesoscale wind fields, limited microphysical sampling, 2-D EFM coverage

Aircraft: The P-3 will conduct a series of 15 minute flight legs, at various altitudes, centered on the location of one of the mobile laboratories. Tail Doppler radar data will be collected in FAST-continuous mode during the flight legs. A two minute "purl" pattern will be conducted near the center of each flight leg to document the mesoscale vertical motion structure and hydrometeor fallspeed profile.

Mobile Labs: The mobile laboratories will line up perpendicular to the convective line to document the MCS's 2-D electrical structure. NSSL2 will launch a PTH sounding ahead of the convective line. NSSL1 and NSSL2 will then launch balloon-borne EFMs into the convective updraft and downdraft, respectively (launches separated by 5-10 minutes) followed by alternating NSSL1 and NSSL2 EFM launches approximately every 1 hour.

Cimarron: During the balloon-borne EFM launches, Cimarron will collect data in PPI mode. Since data the MCS kinematic structure in Region II is well documented by P-3 pseudo-dual-Doppler, Cimarron data collection will focus on high temporal resolution low elevation scans with which to compare aircraft microphysical profiles.

Notes: The launch of other balloon-borne electrical instrumentation (Q-D, x-ray, field change, and cloud particle replicator) from NSSL1, NSSL2 and NSSL3 will be coordinated by mobile laboratory chief scientists. Cimarron may conduct occasional RHI scans when regions of aligned ice crystals are observed.

FIGURE 9

Figure 9: Schematic of (a) horizontal and (b) vertical MCS cross-sections for experiment Option IIb. Dots in (b) depict system-relative location at which each flight leg intersects the cross-section.

Option IIb:

Goal: Document mesoscale wind fields, limited microphysical sampling, 3-D EFM coverage

Aircraft: The P-3 will conduct a series of 15 minute flight legs, at various altitudes, centered on the location of one of the mobile laboratories. Tail Doppler radar data will be collected in FAST-continuous mode during the flight legs. A two minute "purl" pattern will be conducted near the center of each flight leg to document the mesoscale vertical motion structure and hydrometeor fallspeed profile.

Mobile Labs: The mobile laboratories will initially line up perpendicular to the convective line. NSSL2 will launch a PTH sounding ahead of the convective line. NSSL2 and NSSL1 will then launch balloon- borne EFMs into the convective updraft and downdraft, respectively (launches separated by 5-10 minutes). After launch, NSSL1 will immediately move to a line-parallel position to that of NSSL2. NSSL1 and NSSL2 will then launch EFMs simultaneously approximately every hour.

Cimarron: During the balloon-borne EFM launches, Cimarron will collect data in PPI mode. Since data the MCS kinematic structure in Region II is well documented by P-3 pseudo-dual-Doppler, Cimarron data collection will focus on high temporal resolution low elevation scans with which to compare aircraft microphysical profiles.

Notes: The launch of other balloon-borne electrical instrumentation (Q-D, x-ray, field change, and cloud particle replicator) from NSSL1, NSSL2 and NSSL3 will be coordinated by mobile laboratory chief scientists. Cimarron may conduct occasional RHI scans when regions of aligned ice crystals are observed.

FIGURE 10

Figure 10: Schematic of (a) horizontal and (b) vertical MCS cross-sections for experiment Option IIc.

Option IIc:

Goal: Document mesoscale wind fields, microphysical sampling

Aircraft: The P-3 will conduct a series of line-normal flight legs at various altitudes to document spatial distributions of raindrop (Option 1) and ice (Option 2) hydrometeor characteristics in the stratiform region. These flight legs will be flown at 5 and 10 kft (Option 1) and 18 and 23 kft (Option 2), respectively. Tail Doppler radar data will be collected in FAST-continuous mode during the flight legs. A two minute "purl" pattern will be conducted near the center of each flight leg to document the mesoscale vertical motion structure and hydrometeor fallspeed profile.

Mobile Labs: The mobile labs are not required for this experiment.

Cimarron: Cimarron will collect data in PPI mode when the P-3 is flying line-normal legs that are not along a Cimarron radial and RHI mode when the P-3 is flying along a Cimarron radial. Specific Cimarron scanning strategies are presented in Section 6.

Notes: These flight patterns may occasionally be coordinated with balloon-borne EFM launches.

8.5 Region III Field Experiments

FIGURE 11

Figure 11: Schematic of (a) horizontal and (b) vertical MCS cross-sections for experiment Option IIIa. Vertical lines in (b) depict system-relative location at which spiral ascents/descents intersect the cross- section.

Option IIIa:

Goal: Document mesoscale wind fields, microphysical profiles, 2-D EFM coverage

Aircraft: The P-3 will conduct a series of 15 minute flight legs, at various altitudes, centered on the location of one of the mobile laboratories. The P-3 flies from A to B, then to point 1 at 8 kft and performs a spiral ascent to 23 kft. The P-3 then flies to A, then B, and then back to point 1 at 23 kft and performs a spiral descent to 8 kft. This pattern is repeated throughout EFM data collection. Tail Doppler radar data will be collected in FAST-continuous mode during the flight legs. Spiral ascents/descents will be conducted at approximately 1000 ft/min.

Mobile Labs: The mobile laboratories will line up perpendicular to the convective line to document the MCS's 2-D electrical structure. NSSL2 will launch a PTH sounding ahead of the convective line. NSSL1 and NSSL2 will then launch balloon-borne EFMs into the convective updraft and downdraft, respectively (launches separated by 5-10 minutes) followed by alternating NSSL1 and NSSL2 EFM launches approximately every 30 minutes.

Cimarron: During the balloon-borne EFM launches, Cimarron will collect data in PPI mode. Unlike in Region II, Cimarron data in Region I will be collected to high elevation angles in order to obtain quality upper-level wind data in the Cimarron-KTLX dual-Doppler lobes. Specific Cimarron scanning strategies are presented in Section 6.

Notes: The launch of other balloon-borne electrical instrumentation (Q-D, x-ray, field change, and cloud particle replicator) from NSSL1, NSSL2 and NSSL3 will be coordinated by mobile laboratory chief scientists. Cimarron may conduct occasional RHI scans when regions of aligned ice crystals are observed.

FIGURE 12

Figure 12: Schematic of (a) horizontal and (b) vertical MCS cross-sections for experiment Option IIIb. Vertical lines in (b) depict system-relative location at which spiral ascents/descents intersect the cross- section.

Option IIIb:

Goal: Document mesoscale wind fields, microphysical profiles, 3-D EFM coverage

Aircraft: The P-3 will conduct a series of 15 minute flight legs, at various altitudes, centered on the location of one of the mobile laboratories. The P-3 flies from A to B, then to point 1 at 8 kft and performs a spiral ascent to 23 kft. The P-3 then flies to A, then B, and then back to point 1 at 23 kft and performs a spiral descent to 8 kft. This pattern is repeated throughout EFM data collection. Tail Doppler radar data will be collected in FAST-continuous mode during the flight legs. Spiral ascents/descents will be conducted at approximately 1000 ft/min.

Mobile Labs: The mobile laboratories will initially line up perpendicular to the convective line. NSSL2 will launch a PTH sounding ahead of the convective line. NSSL2 and NSSL1 will then launch balloon- borne EFMs into the convective updraft and downdraft, respectively (launches separated by 5-10 minutes). After launch, NSSL1 will immediately move to a line-parallel position to that of NSSL2. NSSL1 and NSSL2 will then launch EFMs simultaneously approximately every hour.

Cimarron: During the balloon-borne EFM launches, Cimarron will collect data in PPI mode. Unlike in Region II, Cimarron data in Region I will be collected to high elevation angles in order to obtain quality upper-level wind data in the Cimarron-KTLX dual-Doppler lobes. Specific Cimarron scanning strategies are presented in Section 6.

Notes: The launch of other balloon-borne electrical instrumentation (Q-D, x-ray, field change, and cloud particle replicator) from NSSL1, NSSL2 and NSSL3 will be coordinated by mobile laboratory chief scientists. Cimarron may conduct occasional RHI scans when regions of aligned ice crystals are observed.


9. Data Management

9.1. Operational and Research Networks

WSR-88D Radar:

The NWS WSR-88D (10-cm Doppler) radar provides two types of archives - base data and products. Base data (Archive Level II) consists of data that have been preprocessed (clutter suppressed, point target filtered, V and W moments range unfolded and return power converted to dBZ and occurs at the Radar Data Acquisition (RDA) component located at the radar tower. Level II base reflectivity data are archived at 1-km resolution out to 460 km; base velocity and spectrum width data are archived at 0.25- km resolution out to 230 km. The archive medium for Level II data is Exabyte 8-mm cartridge tape. These data are archived at NCDC and can be obtained via off-line order entry on the On-line Access and Service Information System (OASIS). NCDC typically requires a nominal fee for duplication and dissemination of archived data via magnetic tape (8 mm). The NCDC system is accessible through the NSSL CODIAC.

Composites:

Regional digitized radar reflectivity composites over the U.S. are available from a commercial vendor (WSI® Corp.) at the UCAR Joint Office for Science Support (JOSS). 15-minute composite files, in McIDAS AREA file format, will be archived for a fixed sector covering the MEaPRS domain. A catalog of browse radar composites Gif images will be also available.

Single Site:

Gif products for the lowest 2 scans from individual radar sites can be archived for various WSR-88D radars in the MEaPRS domain. Arrangements must be made in anticipation of capturing sites of interest to researchers.

Table 10: NWS WSR-88D Radar Sites
 
ID Site Latitude Longitude
KTLX Twin Lakes, OK 35.33 -97.28
KFDR Frederick, OK 34.36 -98.98
KDDC Dodge City, KS 37.76 -99.97
KICT Wichita, KS 37.65 -97.44
KGLD Goodland, KS 39.37 -101.71
KAMA Amarillo, TX 35.24 -101.71
KLZR Little Rock, AR 34.84 -92.26
KINX Tulsa, OK 36.18 -95.56
KTOP Topeka, KS 39.00 -96.23
KDYX Dyess AFB, Abilene,TX 32.54 -99.25
KVNX Vance AFB, Enid, OK 36.74 -97.28
KFWS Dallas, TX 32.57 -97.30
KLBB Lubbock, TX 33.65 -101.81
Sounding Sites:

National Weather Service standard soundings will be taken during MEaPRS from the existing NWS network every 12 hours (00 and 12 UTC). The radiosondes will be radio-directionally tracked (GMD) with winds measured at one minute interval. Thermodynamic data (temperature, pressure and relative humidity using a carbon hygristor) are sampled about once per second and averaged values from the MicroART processor are stored every 6 seconds. NCDC archives the 6-sec, high resolution data ; JOSS routinely quality-controls and reformats (calculates winds) from these data. The NWS soundings will be available after the field phase via CODIAC.

Table 11: NWS Sounding Sites
 
WMO ID Site Latitude Longitude Elev (m)
72365 ABQ Albuquerque, NM 35.02 -106.60 1613
72363 AMA Amarillo, TX 35.23 -101.70 1099
72451 DDC Dodge City, KS 37.77 -99.97 790
72469 DEN Denver, CO 39.75 -104.87 1625
72270 ELP El Paso, TX 31.80 -106.40 1194
72340 LZR Little Rock, AR 34.73 -92.23 78
72265 MAF Midland, TX 31.95 -102.18 872
72357 OUN Norman, OK 35.23 -97.47 362
72456 TOP Topeka, KS 39.07 -95.62 270
72349 UMN Monett, MO 36.88 -93.90 437
MCLASS soundings:

The Cross-chain LORAN Atmospheric Sounding System uses Vaisala RS-80L LORAN radiosondes to profile temperature, pressure, humidity (Humicap) and winds. Thermodynamic parameters are transmitted directly from the radiosonde to the mobile laboratory every 4 sec. A 20-sec average every 10 seconds is archived for the thermodynamic variables, while a 30-sec average is used for winds. A WMO- coded message can be prepared and transmitted to the MEaPRS Operations Center, if needed. All CLASS data will be archived at NSSL. 10-sec sounding files will be available through the interactive data catalog.

MCLASS electrification:

As noted earlier in this document, five balloon-borne instruments to measure cloud electrification properties will be flown during MEaPRS. Unlike other data sources, there will not be a central archival site for these data sets. Interested collaborators should contact PIs (listed in section 5) for access to specific data sets. As such, there could be some delay with data availability.

OK Mesonetwork:

The Oklahoma Mesoscale surface Network (Oklahoma Mesonet) is operated by the Oklahoma Climato- logical Survey (OCS) and consists of 111 automated sites. 5-minute data are received at OCS, in Norman, Oklahoma, where they are quality controlled and archived. All mesonet sites measure the standard surface meteorological parameters, with some sites taking additional measurements from specialized instruments. Since some collaborative efforts are planned between OU and MEaPRS, arrangements could be made for the OCS to provide a complete data set to the MEaPRS archive.

GOES satellite imagery:

Satellite imagery is routinely ingested at NSSL and archived to tape. Visible and Infrared imagery are nominally available every 30 minutes, at 4-km resolution. The capability exists to acquire a high resolution (1-km) sector centered over the MEaPRS domain, if requested by researchers. Additionally, 12-km resolution images of water vapor channel are also available. These data are received from both GOES-8 and GOES-9 satellites.

Aircraft Data:

NOAA's Aircraft Operations Center (NOAA/AOC, Tampa, FL) operates a Lockheed Orion WP-3D aircraft, a four-engine turboprop, which will be based out of Will Rogers World Airport at Oklahoma City. The P-3 will be available from 15 May to 15 June 1998 for approximately 50 research hours. The aircraft routinely measures flight level state parameters (temperature, moisture, winds) and basic microphysical variables (liquid water, PMS probe data) as well as data collected by its two radars. All aircraft data systems are recorded on 4-mm DAT media.

Flight-level Data:

Flight level meteorological data (temperature, moisture, winds) and other data systems from the P-3 will be collected, quality controlled and processed by the AOC. The data will be catalogued and archived at NSSL. CODIAC will have an inventory of take-off, landing times and could contain flight track information. The aircraft data manager will provide flight track information to the MEaPRS Field Catalog after each flight.

Aircraft Radar Data:

The NOAA WP-3D research aircraft carries two radars, the horizontally scanning lower fuselage (LF) radar and a vertically scanning tail (TA) radar. The LF radar is non-coherent and the TA radar is Doppler (3-cm). Both radars are three-axis stabilized, where the TA antenna is nominally directed perpendicular to the aircraft ground track but can be skewed fore and aft in order to perform pseudo dual-doppler scanning. Both antennas rotate a full 360 . Reflectivity and velocity data from the radars are recorded on 4-mm DAT media. The aircraft data manager, John Daugherty will provide a few radar summary images after each flight for documentation in the MEaPRS Field Catalog. All aircraft radar data will be available from the data manager after the field phase.

Cimarron Radar Data:

Cimarron data (reflectivity, radial velocity, spectral width, differential reflectivity, differential phase shift, and correlation coefficient) are continuously recorded during field operations on 8 mm DAT cartridges.

Lightning Network:

Cloud-to-ground flash information is routinely received at NSSL for the region centered on Oklahoma and Kansas from the Lightning Location and Protection (LLP/GAI) system. Data for time, location, polarity, signal strength and number of returned strokes are available for purchase at the end of the calendar year from Global Atmospherics, Inc.

Profiler Network:

Data from the Wind Profiler Demonstration Network are quality controlled by the NOAA Profiler Hub in Boulder, Colorado, archived at NCDC and can be accessed via the CODIAC system. Typically, high resolution (6-sec) data are kept on-line for 7 days and hourly data for 30 days.

Table 12: ERL Wind Profiler Demonstration Network Sites
 
ID Site ST Lat Long elev (m)
CNW  Conway MO 37.52 -92.70 390
DQU  DeQueen AR 34.11 -94.29 195
GDA  Granada CO 37.77 -102.17 1155
HKL Haskell OK 35.81 -95.78 212
HVL  Haviland KS 37.65 -99.09 648
HBR  Hillsboro KS 38.3 -97.29 447
JTN  Jayton TX 33.02 -100.98 707
NRC  Kansas City MO 38.96 -94.57 244
LMN  Lamont  OK 36.69 -97.48 306
LTH  Lathrop MO 39.58 -94.19 297
NDS  Neodesha KS 37.37 -95.63 255
PAT  Palestine TX 31.77 -95.71 119
PRC  Purcell OK 34.97 -97.51 331
TCU  Tucumcari  NM 35.08 -103.61 1241
VCI  Vici OK 36.07 -99.22 648
WSM  White Sands NM 32.40 -106.34 1224
Model data:

Operational model-derived gridpoint data are available to NSSL researchers via the SPC data feed or the Unidata/Local Data Manager (LDM) feed. These files are routinely archived by NSSL/CSS staff. Data will be available, off-line, through the interactive data catalog. NSSL typically receives Eta and Ruc gridpoint data files in Gempak format.

MM5 at NSSL:

The NCAR / Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) is run at NSSL. Arrangements could be made for archival and distribution of MM5 grid fields, if requested by MEaPRS investigators.

9.2 Operations Summary / Field Data Catalog

NSSL, in collaboration with the UCAR Joint Office for Science Support (JOSS) has developed the capability of maintaining a World Wide Web (WWW)-based field data catalog. The on-line catalog capability allows investigators limited perusal and display of preliminary data products during the field phase. The catalog will also provide in-field project summaries (daily or otherwise as required) and summarize data collection activities. The field data catalog will provide access to daily operations and weather forecasts relating to MEaPRS activities. The NSSL field catalog can be reached at http://spider.nssl.noaa.gov/catalog/. The Web-based field catalog is also valuable in providing information to investigators that may be located away from the Operations Center.

A number of forecast / nowcast products will be available to the Operations Director and the Nowcaster at the MEaPRS Operations Center. The Operations Center will be housed in the SPC Science Support Area (SSA). Arrangements will be made for most products (excluding Cimarron products) received at the SSA workstations (N-AWIPS, RAMSDIS) to be copied to tape on a daily basis.

9.3 Interactive Data Catalog and Archive

Central to the NSSL data management is the on-line, interactive, catalog, archival and distribution system (CODIAC) which offers scientists a means to identify data sets of interest, the facilities to view selected data and associated metadata, and the ability to automatically obtain data from geographically dispersed data centers via Internet file transfer (FTP) or separate media (tapes, CD-ROM, disks, etc.). Links will also be provided from the NSSL CODIAC to other data centers holding cooperative project data and other relevant information to MEaPRS research. The NSSL CODIAC system can be reached at http://codiac.nssl.noaa.gov/
 


10. Principal Investigators
 


Appendix A
Organizations
 
Appendix B
Acronyms
 


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